The Supreme Court’s 2013 ruling in United States v. Windsor created a lot of uncertainty in the area of federal employment benefits. Because the federal government’s definition of marriage as being between one man and one woman was held to be unconstitutional, the decision left open the question of when same-sex couples were eligible for spousal benefits in a variety of contexts. In a move that is sure to simplify issues for multi-state employers, the Department of Labor is taking steps to clarify that issue under the Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Continue reading
A party’s “right to privacy” in the context of social media is the subject for numerous motions in civil litigation. The scenario goes like this: Plaintiff sues defendant, alleging injuries. Defendants seeks discovery of Plaintiff’s social-media content, such as photos, posts, and comments, in the hopes of disproving liability and/or damages. Plaintiff claims right to privacy in social-media content. Court must decide. Continue reading
Earlier this week, I wrote about the issue of threats made via Facebook constitute constitutionally protected speech. Today’s post also is about threats made via Facebook but in the context of the workplace. The case, decided by the Court of Appeals of Ohio, is timed perfectly for my road trip tomorrow to Ohio.
In Ames v. Ohio Department of Rehabilitation & Correction, an employee, a Senior Parole Officer, was sent for an independent medical exam after she posted a Facebook comment that her employer believed to be a threat. The comment was in reference to shooting parolees. The employee claimed that the comment was a joke. The psychologist who conducted the exam cleared her to return to work, finding no evidence of depression, anxiety, or mood disturbance. Continue reading
The intersection of Facebook use and Free Speech is complicated. Complicated enough, in fact, that the U.S. Supreme Court will weigh in on the subject when it decides a case it is scheduled to hear argument in today, Elonis v. United States.
The basic legal principle at issue is what constitutes a “true threat.” It is a crime to use the phone or Internet to make a “threat to injure” another person. And “true threats” are not protected as speech under the First Amendment. So, “true threats” to injure another made via Facebook can be punishable as crimes. Otherwise, the speech would be protected by the constitution and could not be considered criminal.
But what’s a “true threat?” Is that question to be answered by the “reasonable person” who would be subject to the threat? Or does the speaker have to have intended his words as a threat to constitute a criminal act?
In Elonis, the defendant was arrested after making violent threats directed to his ex-wife (and others). At trial, he testified that he did not intend to frighten anyone and compared his posts to rap lyrics. The jury didn’t buy it and found that a reasonable person would have viewed the posts as “true threats.” So now the Supreme Court will decide what the “true test” for “true threats” should be.
The legal issue may appear easier than it is. The facts of the case may make the speech and speaker less sympathetic. For example, his Facebook comments included the following about his wife, after she left with their two children:
If I only knew then what I know now, I would have smothered [you] with a pillow, dumped your body in the back seat, dropped you off in Toad Creek and made it look like rape and murder.
He later posted, “I’m not gonna rest until your body is a mess, soaked in blood and dying from all the little cuts.” And, when a court issued the wife a protective order, Elonis posted whether it was “thick enough to stop a bullet.” He also threatened to kill an FBI agent and to slaughter a class of kindergarten students, reports the LA Times.
Well, it’s happened again. The Delaware Employment Law Blog was selected as one of the Top 100 Legal Blogs in the country by the ABA Journal Magazine. Because this is my fifth year as an honoree, I’ve been inducted into the magazine’s Hall of Fame, where I join my friend Dan Schwartz, whose Connecticut Employment Law Blog was inducted in 2013. In my world, this is the most prestigious award a legal blogger can receive and it is such an honor to have been selected again. It is, as the saying goes, truly an embarrassment of riches. Continue reading
Investigating complaints of inappropriate workplace conduct is a difficult challenge for any number of reasons. But conducting an immediate and thorough investigation is critical to both preventing lawsuits and to avoiding liability should a lawsuit arise. Human-resource professionals often ask for tips in handling this challenge. Here are three.
First, don’t be shy. An investigation of workplace harassment is not the time to be timid. Ask the tough questions and be direct. Don’t mince words or dance around the questions. Consider writing out the questions that you need answers to and actually check them off your list. If you don’t ask a straight question, you’ll never get a straight answer. Continue reading
Employers, do you know what apps your employees are using? That’s the question posed by a recent article in the WSJ. (See Companies Don’t Know What Apps Their Employees Are Using). My guess is that the answer to this important question is, “No.” Here are my top tips for how not to be the employer discussed in the WSJ article.
First, have a policy about employees’ use of cloud-based apps to save work-related documents. Consider prohibiting employees from saving work documents to cloud-based storage accounts such as Dropbox, SkyDrive, and Box.net. Also consider prohibiting employees from backing up the contents of their work laptops to cloud-based back-up accounts, such as Mozy and Carbonite. Continue reading